SPATIAL CULTURAL-HISTORICAL AREA PALIĆ

18. December 2018.

The boundary of the spatial cultural and historical part of Palić goes: from the west coast of the lake, the west edge of the plots 14014, 14011, 14008, 14006, 14005, 14323, Kupališnom street, crosses the railway Subotica-Horgoš (1454), the western edge of the plot 14702/1 to Horgoš road (1472), Horgoš road to the east to Brestovačka street, Lajoša Joa street, crosses Ištvan Kizura street in Bela Bartoka street, Pionirski street to the railway Subotica – Horgoš, by the eastern eastern edge of the plot 925/2, 925/1, 925 / 3, 930/2, 930/1, 934, 935, 943 to the street Thessaloniki, the Horgos road west to Kanjiski road, and finally with the southern border of the Male stern, the eastern edges of the plots 1405, 1409, 1410 to the lake shore.
The first initiatives on the ban appeared at the end of the 18th century. Until then, the people used a lake to feed and swim cattle, to bleach the canvas and wash clothes, as well as to swim and refresh. A year after gaining the status of a free royal city, Johan Gotfried Liebetraut, the head doctor of Backa County pointed to the possibility of getting salty by cooking lake water, as well as some healing properties in a heated state. This initiative was supported by the Emperor Josip II, and in 1782 a soda factory was built next to the Kanjiza Road, between Palic and the Bloody Lake. In still predominantly agricultural Hungary, by building a soda factory, one of the first industrial facilities in the country, Palić is out of local frames.
Although after the construction of the soda factory, on several occasions it was pointed out that the water was healing, 65 years had elapsed since this first initiative in order for the city to join the formation of a spa. Godine 1841/42. In the year 2000, a modest park was set up north of the lake, according to the English so-called. natural parks, and this year can be taken as the beginning of the formation of the resort, resort and future spa. The first buildings in the park, a guesthouse with two rooms for accommodating visitors, horseback riding, a stable and a free bath on the lake, were erected in 1845. Construction of Topol Bath 1852/54. year, and then the Gornje and Donje trnjare hotels 1853/54. Palić Spa was founded, and it turned into a resort from the Subotica excursion. Further spatial development was planned out west of the park. In 1853, a city architect Janoš Škulteti developed a plan for the sale of the land,which directed the whole further spatial – architectural development of the spa. The construction of a villa began first west of the park, and then east alongside it.
Passing of the railway line through Palić in 1869, the structure of his guests changed, the Palić’s rise from the local framework, the penetration of European influences, as well as facilitating the arrival of visitors from the farthest parts of Hungary. The construction of the villa is accelerating east of Kanjiza road and north of the railway station in the so-called. “Urban settlement”, whose foundations were already established in 1881. The most important event in the social life of Palić is the establishment of Palić sports games. Competitions in ten athletic skills appeared thirteen years before the Olympic Games were proclaimed at an international congress in Paris, and fifteen years before their renewal in Athens in 1896. It was organized by landowner and athlete Lajos Vermeš (Vermes Lajos) in his orchard west of the park. Lajos Vermeš was born in 1891.He built a large sports complex on a dense land along the coast itself. The sports complex consisted of three representative villas, Bagojvar, Lujza villa and Mala Vermeš villa, asphalt biking trail, pavilions, stands, inns and temporary theater.
At that time the territory of Palić had reached the spatial frameworks in which it will develop to this day. The entire territory east, west and north of the park was sparse, several classicistic villas were built, while Swiss villas were the most represented.
By introducing the Budapest-Zemun railroad in 1883, four years later, building a station on Palic, then paving the way between Subotica and Palic in 1894, and especially the introduction of the tram in 1897 on the same route, all the preconditions for the prosperity of the Palic spa at the end of XIX century. In 1885 the first separate male and female bath was built on the lake, while the sanatorium for hydrotherapy treatment was built in 1898. The biggest endeavor in the regulation of the spa at the end of the century is the regulation of the unregulated marshy coast and the construction of a semicircular embankment with a promenade along the coast between 1886 and 89.
At the beginning of the 20th century, existing public buildings of the spa did not correspond to the aesthetic, health and hygiene standards of European spas. The construction of the bathing area was carried out according to the projects of Marcela Chamber (Comor Marcell) and Deje Jakaba (Jakab Dezsö), Budapest architects who already affirmed their buildings in Subotica. In the period between 1909 and 1912, Vodotoranj, Velika terasa (Vigadó), Music Pavilion, Ženski štrand and hotel were built, the old hotel was renovated as well as the Upper marketers, while the Donna grilled was destroyed. Plumbing and sewerage were done, regulation and arrangement of the park with paths in length of 3 km was done, lighting in the park and facilities was introduced. At the beginning of 1912, works were completed. Comor and Jakab projected a memorandum with the advice of the Zigmond Strobl Kisfaludi (Kisfaludi Strobl Zsigmond), a famous sculptor,but it has not been completed until the opening ceremony. The swimming pool was officially opened by the mayor of Karolj Biro, at the same time with the City House in Subotica on September 15, 1912, with the presence of guests from all over the country.
This was the first planned, complex venture, which included the urban planning of the park, the construction of new and restoration of existing facilities, the arrangement of the coast, the communal equipping of the park, to the smallest detail of urban equipment. The image of Palić, which has been retained to date, was formed, and these objects became his symbols. The further development of Palić interrupted the First World War, after its completion, the construction would flow on the eastern shore of the lake by forming a man’s bath, and after the Second World War, he continued the construction of weekend settlements.
By establishing the historical core of Palić for the spatial cultural and historical unit, the proclamation of individual objects for cultural monuments was suspended.